2014 London Design Festival / Goldsmiths MA Design Show
‘In the Groove’ offers a digital platform designed as an interactive medium, aiming to create an environment in which each dancer is encouraged to develop the capability to effectively involve the sensibility of their audience, via extreme, emotional and attitudinal performances. I take the exhibition of this design as an opportunity to explore the intensity of the user’s engagement across different factors and aspects, in order to develop an understanding of the relationship between dance and interactivity.
The relationship, which is established by the association with dance, interactive design and medium, constitutes a dominant connective role of increasing human engagement with a design and its service. Dancing is expressive behaviour of the human body that enacts both physical relaxation and excitement and their emotional or ‘mood’ counterparts. Interaction [design] is a process of offering information and receiving responses to/from its audience. Furthermore, dance’s performativity has the characteristic of ephemerality i.e. that a visible form exists in the real space but ceases to exist after the action has been performed, which characteristics seems to fit in with the environment of the virtual platform.
‘In the Groove’ is a project that is a digital platform designed as an interactive medium, aiming to create an environment in which each dancer is anticipated to have the capability to effectively involve the human sensibility of its audience via extreme emotional and attitudinal performance. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and develop ideas about how the medium generates comprehensive structure, as regards the intensity of the user’s engagement, from different factors and aspects, and how the utilisation and the design of an interactive medium reinforces the connectivity from dancing activity to the interactivity of the medium (and including the participation of the user).
Dancing, a flow of interpreting the sentiment of human being, can either be an elaborate choreography or a series of improvisational movements, which interacts with the medium, audience, space or within a particular environment. Most dance is accompanied by music; indeed sometimes it is an interpretation of music, (for the purposes of this discussion, I will exclude music that has been composed in collaboration with a choreographer or a dancer). Yet the flow of bodily reflection of the music may arise or focus on different components of the music, for example it might focus more on the lyrics, or more on the beat. As Rothfield (2011) states, ‘The dancing lies in the flow from meeting to meeting, in the successive simultaneity of action predicated upon response.’ Dance as a nonverbal approaches of communication that every movement dancer produces by the coordination of their torso, limbs and joints for constantly and completely conveying messages under the dancer’s conscious control, and perhaps other more unconscious messages.
‘Dance’s superiority is to be found in its affirmation of active force’s acting its reactions. This is an expression of what Deleuze calls “the master type”. Dance is a corporeal activity wherein active force prevails and reactions are simply acted. This activity bypasses consciousness altogether. Corporeal experience is a parasitic reaction towards the alien world of bodily activity. It is a product or symptom of the body, an inert perspective upon its activities. Experience is a reaction that feeds off active force as it momentarily neutralizes it.’ (Rothfield, 2011)
In general, dance can be seen as a social or cultural means that assembles meanings of aesthetics and kinaesthetics. From another perspective, dance is not just a procedure that is accomplished by the dancer’s physical movement. On the other hand, it is an integration of simultaneous sophisticated co-operation between the body of dancer and the rhythm of the music. Therefore, music is an essential component that needs to be taken into account in a dancing performance.
Cunningham has commented on varying approaches to the process of choreography: ‘… About the formal methods of Choreography – some due to the conviction that a communication of one order or another is necessary; others to the feeling that mind follows heart, that is, form follows content; some due to the feeling that the musical form is the most logical to follow.’ (Cunningham, 1952: 27) The ‘In the Groove’ project is designed to build on aspects of the last method mentioned in this quotation from Cunningham – the way that music can be essential to the expression of emotion on the part of the dancer, both underpinning and interacting with the dancer’s movements. However, the project is interested in extending the potential for communication offered by dance. So that it is not just about a dancer’s performance being uploaded and offered for the ‘user’ to enjoy, but to play on the potential for the user to take this further, due to the way music can provoke a desire to dance in the listener, viewer or user.
Thus, as Katz (2012) states, when discussing the function of a particular component of music, ‘A break is a brief percussion solo, typically found toward the end of a funk song, though it may show up anywhere in a song, and really, anywhere in music. The power of the break is in the way it moves people, literally, compelling them “get on the good foot”’. (The italics are those of the writer of this paper). A dance performance is the integration of individual feeling, successive corporeal moves and music. As a result, the approaches to interpret dancing have had various possibilities of combination due to a variety of music constructs before applying it to the different dance styles. The dancer can simply dance by following the above elements respectively or utilising all of the elements to achieve the diversity of dance.
As can be seen on any simple survey on the Internet, there is a large amount of different dance styles such as contemporary, traditional, hip-hop and electric as the basic genres. Moreover, each of these styles even extends to several sub-branches of dance. Nevertheless, dance styles cannot simply be matched to music genres, such categorisation would be too simplistic. And there might be limitations to the consideration or simple comparison of musical genres and dance styles. The permutations of dance styles with music are far wider-ranging. Therefore, dance it is apparent that dance has developed numerous forms. Take the sub-branches of hip-hop and electronic dances for example, hip-hop has been divided into: electric boogaloo, krumping, locking, popping and breaking; electronic dance has been divided into: vogue, house, electro, waacking, etc.
According to Rothfield (2011), ‘To be in movement is to generate a series of shifts or changes, manifested through the flow of sensible becomings. Dancing is the movement from state to state, body to body, the passage of the passing moment. The dancer’s body, like posture itself, must be conceived as a mobile state of affairs, a plurality of bodies that make and re-make themselves through the passage of time.’ It is evident that dancing is an extremely expressive behaviour via dancer’s torso and limbs. Nevertheless, the corporation between dance and interaction design is accordingly credible for the utilisation of user experience.
III. Interactive Design
Interactive design is presently a main tendency and approach that attracts people to get involved in a significant design service and product. Furthermore, the association between dance performance and the interactive medium is very likely to create circumstances that have the potential to create great intensity of user engagement. Salmond and Ambrose (2013) notes that interactive design relates to a wide range of media exhibiting and operational forms such as websites, tablet, mobile, television, touchable screen interface, etc., which kind of design has turned traditional media upside down. It ‘expands and enriches traditional media; it allows audiences to engage, share, comment and interact with content, as opposed to static mediums (sometimes referred to as passive media, such as films, print and television) that require no direct interaction of feedback from its audience.’ Interactive design indeed turns the world in which space becomes more ‘meaningful’ with its consumers due to the dual ways conversation. However, the contents of interactive media are producing and progressing via the process of constant information exchange.
An effective and fluent interactive medium depends on a thorough understanding of both the medium construct and the way its users operate it, the way the users provide, recreate and exchange information about the content. In addition to this, there is an exclusive term to describe such an interactivity, named ‘User-Generated Content (UGC)’. One of the features of UCG is that it allows people to build up particular creations in the virtual world without physical contacts with the objects on the screen. Grossman (2006) describes that in the year of 2006, there is ‘a story about community and collaboration’, by which he means the situation of mass contributions from online materials on cyber-platforms, such as Youtube, Wikipedia and Myspace, which generate their contexts of service from individual contributors (visitors/users) all over the world.
He continues, ‘It’s about the many wresting power from the few and helping one another for nothing and how that will not only change the world, but also change the way the world changes… It’s a tool for bringing together the small contributions of millions of people and making them matter.’ Thus, it is a persuasive argument that conscious involvement with a particular space (service) is crucial to enforce the intensity of consumers’ engagement. However, in order to produce an effective environment and to maintain the service efficiency, one vital factor is to ensure it makes use of up to date technologies and innovations as comprehensively as possible, and to consider to the possibilities of utilising the features or functions of technologies in the design service.
IV. Initial Ideas Development
In general, design is an approach to solving problems, creating ideas or producing innovative objects. More specifically, in terms of interactive design, it is very important to have attractive functions and efficient structure concerning the connectivity of creative elements with its users, since technological functions of the medium are probably playing a critical role for achieving the above mentioned objectives. Salmond and Ambrose (2013) state that ‘The richer experience is one where interactive technology allows the story of the artefact and its owners to come alive in a meaningful and engaging way.’ Thus, understanding how new technologies work is undoubtedly necessary to advancing and developing design thinking and design service as an interactive medium. Moreover, the use of a new technology is necessary to accompany innovative ideas for the completeness of the construct, and in order to continuously seize great ideas, there are certain methods have been introduced in books and employed in various projects, and some basic approaches are considered and processed in this project. First of all, case study and design research, such as qualitative research and quantitative research is essential to be accomplished before commencing one design process because these two can help designers to clarify and understand the customers’ thinking more efficiently, and to prevent designers’ opinions deviating from the initial purpose.
Besides case study and design research, the approaches to obtaining inspirations and sparking ideas are fairly crucial factors in every design practice. Firstly, ‘Inspiration’ is ideas that lead a design towards diverse directions, which helps designers to sparking ideas at every phase in the design processes,
and possibly determines the creativity of a new design in the very beginning phases. Moreover, inspiring resources exist anywhere and in any objects, which could appear from trivial items to enormous objects, from micro-organisms to buildings or even human faces. In other words, designers are capable of generating innovative ideas from inspirations that bump into their brains dramatically whilst designing.
‘Inspiration is an often over used word, but ultimately it’s about trusting instincts, often gained from a combination of experience and leaps of faith. Belief and passion for design is important, as is being open to new ideas. Designers need to be able to translate those ideas into tangible digital artefacts and interactions. To facilitate inspirational moments designers may, like artists and musicians, surround themselves with objects that inspire them, for example, design books, magazines, products and whimsical items.’ (Salmond and Ambrose, 2013: 42)
Subsequently, once the direction of an interactive design project has defined, the following phase is about idea development. In such a phase, it is fairly a productive approach to the utility of ‘Mind Map’. Mind Map is a well-known means for design process, which is demonstrated as a flatten diagram that illustrates the interconnectivity among concepts and visual items. It enables designers to discover projects that innovate a new possibility or a new storyline by connecting ideas from dot to dot, dot to image or image to image, and further, to produce a logical design structure of thinking. Thus, once the ‘Inspiration’ and ‘Mind Map’ has been properly utilised to outline a design structure, it is rational that scenario of the design will gradually become clear and achievable.
Figure 4. Mind Map diagram
V. User Experience (UX) Design
The term ‘User Experience (UX) Design’ has been discussed in many different contexts, and has become a commonly used word, yet here it is mainly discussed in terms of design-related fields. The term is widely accepted as relating to the interactivity of design service and its customers, which relies on the understanding and experience of the user needs and satisfaction. A proper UX design comprehensively understands what to offer and how to create a better use interface and comfortable environment for the users. It makes the environment become a more meaningful and immersive space. According to definition from Nielsen J. and D. Norma (n.d.), who coined the term of ‘User Experience’:
‘The first requirement for an exemplary user experience is to meet the exact needs of the customer, without fuss or bother. Next comes simplicity and elegance that produce products that are a joy to own, a joy to use. True user experience goes far beyond giving customers what they say they want, or providing checklist features. In order to achieve high-quality user experience in a company’s offerings there must be a seamless merging of the services of multiple disciplines, including engineering, marketing, graphical and industrial design, and interface design.’
As the above explanation of UX, it seems that UX design is essential to consider towards various subjects and fields in which service can presumably produce a more user-understood medium that deals with and connects with the demands of the customers who experience the medium and then get impressed by the service.
In order to create a distinctive user experience, Salmond and Ambrose (2013) divided UX design into four parts for the concept of design projects. For instance, in the ‘Distinctiveness’ part, they take the museum and the theme park as examples: ‘Some of the best examples of experience design are spaces… Every museum and theme park has a distinct environment that can only be experienced by being there and by engaging with the stories in the environment’. In this section, the Natural History Museum is considered, whose ‘ancient creation section’ was introduced to visitors through interactive touchable screens that visitors can use to navigate their way to understanding the narrative and the background of the age and the creations, allowing them to access the space and become entirely immersed in the story. As can be seen, a successful collaboration between a space and an appropriate interface design could be perfect supplements to each other.
Navigation And Storyboards /
A good interactive medium design (as an interface) needs a constructive layout display for the visitors. It must have the capability to navigate its users to follow the planned visiting order of the service as a form of narrative, whose interface helps to understand and explain what the medium aim to present to the users in a certain way. ‘Devise and create an innovative engagement mechanism or marketing hook that will encourage visitors to the site… designing experiences for audiences is the mainstay of the interactive designer. Telling stories and enabling audiences to create their own meaning is an integral part of the design process.’ (Salmond and Ambrose, 2013: 38)
Thus, UX design is the way of narrative concerning the purpose of a design service/product whose aim is to connect its customers within the space created by the design, and further, to generate an emotional attachment between the design and the user’s experience. In other words, how a UX design offers its customers an impressive experience is probably the key to determining the impact of a design.
VI. Encoding And Decoding
How to encourage customers to get involved in a design/service/product is one of the main issues in many fields, such as marketing, advertising and mass communication. Furthermore, in order to have a deep and thorough understanding of the structure and the circulation of the interactive media communicative system, it seems clearly helpful to apply Stuart Hall’s theory ‘Encoding’ and ‘Decoding’ to the interactive design process. Stuart Hall, who is a cultural theorist, sociologist and a specialist in mass communication, introduced the theory of encoding and decoding in the 1970s, analysing the processes of how messages are produced and delivered from site to site, and from the sender to the receiver.
This theory suggests that the meaning of a text fluctuates, depending on both sides of encoder and decoder. The former addresses a message via the medium, and then the latter translates the context through the understanding and interpretation of themselves, which dual-sides en(de)coding process accomplishes the dissemination of the messages. On the other hand, as Stuart Hall (1990) claims that ‘… since there is no necessary correspondence between encoding and decoding, the former can attempt to “pre-fer” but cannot prescribe or guarantee the latter, which has its own conditions of existence.’ Accordingly, even though the producer had given a preliminary definition of a message, the meaning of the message still cannot be completed before the context has interpreted by the receiver.
figure 5. the circulation of ‘encoding and decoding’
The meaning of a message, according to the illustration above, is completed by both the producer and the receiver, which phenomena points out that an influential communication must result from both sides’ co-operation; a process of interactivities. In addition to this, it seems reasonable, in my opinion, to claim that messages can presumably reinforce the connectivity and the relationships among the encoder, the medium and the decoder once the power of emotional factors, such as dancing, are taken into account in the encoding and decoding process. Yet, conveying messages needs to be delimited within particular parameters to prevent audiences from straying too far from the original intention that the encoder disseminated.
‘If there were no limits, audiences could simply read whatever they liked into any message… But the vast range must contain some degree of reciprocity between encoding and decoding moments, otherwise we could not speak of an effective communicative exchange at all.’ (Hall, 1990) Hence, the realisation of the ways in which encoder (dancer/designer) and the decoder (user) deliver messages in an interactive medium can lead to a more effective medium structure being accomplished. In consequence, the interactivities in media complete the circulation of the messages conveyed through the work of the designers who offer a service/product, and users constantly interpret the contextual meaning by themselves. The process of successive message exchanges as interactivities are convincing elements that result in a better user engagement within the design service/product.
VII. Major Project - ‘In The Groove’ Website
The way that a service, a product or a design interacts with its customers determines the user’s engagement and satisfaction (User Experience design). This project, In the Groove, is a digital platform that aims to explore how an interactive medium enhances and reflects people’s sense of identification with a specific culture, expression and event in terms of dancing, via users’ visual, auditory and corporeal engagement.
The terms ‘street’ or ‘hip-hop dance’ are commonly considered as juvenile activities, and some who consider themselves as dance-inactive people, are likely to refuse to be involved in any dance-related events.
Consequently, people who have such biases miss out on the opportunity for further understanding and learning the relationship between body movement and emotional expression, and miss out on the possible incidental benefits of dancing activities that could improve the degree of physical and spiritual intensity that can be achieved. On the other hand, modern competitions and dance performances are regularly restricted to a certain form that limits dancers, who are creative from choreography to body extension, to expand their possibilities of dancing achievement.
figure 6. In the Groove - conceptual website introduction
What Does ‘Groove’ Mean? /
One of the definitions from Oxford Dictionaries (n.d.) describes ‘groove’ as ‘Dance to or play popular or jazz music.’ On the other hand, the Wikipedia (n.d.) has offered ‘groove’ a more appropriate definition in terms of this project:
‘Groove is the sense of propulsive rhythmic “feel” or sense of “swing” created by the interaction of the music played by a band’s rhythm section (drums, electric bass or double bass, guitar, and keyboards). Ubiquitous in popular music, groove is a consideration in genres such as salsa, funk, rock, fusion, and soul. The word is often used to describe the aspect of certain music that makes one want to move, dance, or “groove”.’
‘Groove’ perfectly illustrates the concept of this project and what the website is aiming to achieve by the above definition. It attempts to create the atmosphere of the platform in which visitors, who has experienced in this website, can free their passion and emotion through dancing, producing their own world of enjoyment.
*Annotation: the definition of in (or into) the groove (Oxford Dictionaries, n.d.):
1.Performing consistently well or confidently: ‘A musician himself, he first discusses the experiences had by musicians who are in the groove, who are performing at their peak as it all comes together.’
2.Enjoying oneself, especially by dancing: ‘get into the groove!’
In The Groove /
‘In the Groove’ is a dance-based digital platform which is structured to integrate worldwide dance news, creative dance competitions and unique gesture entry code as the three main sections of this website. It offers innovative functions for visitors from different background no matter they are professional dancers, amateur dancers or ordinary visitors to participate in the competitions, browse the information, share their passion and ideas, comment on events, and further, to interact within the platform through their own hands (gesture movement/code).
First of all, the ‘Worldwide Dance News (Global Event Listing)’ section that is continuously collecting up to date events of various dance activities, from contemporary, street, hip-hop, Latin, ballet to tap dance… etc. This section is functioned with a digital global map in which visitors are allowed to search and review what sorts of dance events are in progress or are planning onto the stage by simply clicking on a particular area or city around the world in which map has designed with an organised navigation structure.
figure 7. In the Groove - Worldwide Dance News/Events introduction
Secondly, the ‘Creative Dance Competition’ section aims to hold and facilitate dance activities for the public to engage in, by dancing. Here, everyone has the possibility to be an outstanding dancer, and is allowed to participate in any games once they have signed up as a member. In addition, the competitions will be operated and organised outside of the traditional dance competitive models, which focus on the innovative contents and virtual collaboration among dance studios, dancers and ordinary website visitors.
In order to provoke people’s interests in dancing, each competition will be a new type of activity as a ‘game’ for the sake of creating a more playful environment for every participant. As a result, for the enforcement of customers’ engagement via this platform, it is theoretically suitable to take the tactics of ‘Gamification’ into account in this project.
Gamification Wiki (n.d.) describes the term as follows: ‘Gamification is a business strategy which applies game design techniques to non-game contexts to drive user behaviour’, which concept fits in to one of the objectives of In the Groove, as the operating model to a certain extent; turning dance to be a more playful, enjoyable and game-like activity. ‘… to be most effective gamified websites must use the key tools of points, badges and leader boards, along with numerous “calls to action” that inspire people to not simply visit a company’s website, but to engage in experiences, collaborate on challenges, invite friends to join in and then compete with them… ’ (Ozer, 2012. quoted in Paharia, R., n.d.)
For such an objective regarding users’ engagement enforcement, this project aims to organise every singular competition with distinctive forms and rules to facilitate dancers and visitors getting on board, and introduces inspiring and stimulating elements into the competitive contents such as rewards, ranking system, as well as award mechanism. It is can be expected that dancers, who has involved in the game, will assemble and attract more dancers to join in the game due to the common interests and the team work characteristic of dance. On the other hand, the competitions of In the Groove are based on uploading dance videos to the virtual space (website) where all kinds of dancers and dance-lovers are encouraged and enabled to choreograph and present their unique dance footages because of the variety of games and the independence of the contents on each different game, which allows uploaders to opt for specific competitions that they are willing to participate with their pleasure.
figure 8. In the Groove - Dance Competition introduction
Foursquare: A location-based application for mobile phones that one uses to check in to locations. Your friends can see where you are, and you can give tips about the best dishes at a restaurant. As a reward, you obtain points, badges and can compete to become mayor of a location (the person who checks in the most times). Companies can choose to add ”real” rewards in the form of free coffee or free upgrading of a rental car. (Ponnert, S and M, Thörnkvist, 2011)
figure 9. In the Groove - Gesture Code introduction
To conclude, Engagement, is a critical component that determines whether or not a User Experience Design is able to facilitate the relationships between consumers and the design service, which leads the advancement of interactive design towards a better communicative medium. Furthermore, the dance processes encouraged here involve complicated emotions and bodily reactions from the performer whose physical activity can offer the spectators a great visual and spiritual impact. With In the Groove dancing is a key message and expressive behaviour transporter that encodes the dancers’ emotion into their corporeal performance.
The interactive design is a medium that delivers the signified message, and ultimately the user who decodes the meaning of a dance accomplishes the circulation of communicative interaction. Thus, it is evident that a well-designed interactive medium (associated with the User Experience Design) presumably has the quality of conveying the emotion of a bodily expression and the meaning of the delivered message, which the dancer intended to express and impress on every individual. Therefore, as the concept and intention of this project, the visitors who have experienced the website are anticipated to be encouraged and provoked to freely follow their ‘feeling’ to swing, to move and to enjoy dancing by their physical engagement ‘In the Groove’.
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Hsueh, Y., In the Groove - Worldwide Dance News/Events introduction. [CGI] (Yu-Hsiang Hsueh’s own private collection).
Hsueh, Y., In the Groove - Dance Competition introduction. [CGI] (Yu-Hsiang Hsueh’s own private collection).
Hsueh, Y., In the Groove - Gesture Code introduction. [CGI] (Yu-Hsiang Hsueh’s own private collection).